Plastic Microcapillary Films (MCF) were invented in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Cambridge in the mid 2000s. The background to the invention was work carried out by Dr Tri Tuladhar on the foaming of polymers where it was realised that putting voidage into polymers by foaming involved a difficult to control nucleation process. Additional work carried out by Dr Liang in the Polymer Fluid Groups involved injecting gas into polymer extrusions. So Bart Hallmark was set the task to “engineer voidage” into polymers using gas injection needles. His first two years of the PhD were a nightmare; however the eureka moment happened in the third year and he was able to successfully extrude MCFs.
MCF material can now be purchased from www.lamina.uk.com
The first set of publications are given below, followed by a powerpoint presentation given to in Korea in 2012. MCF technology can now be found in a number of end user devices and application areas.
- B. Hallmark, F. Gadala-Maria and M.R.Mackley, , The melt processing of polymer microcapillary film (MCF),J. Non-Newtonian Fluid. Mech., 128 ,13-28, (2005)
- B. Hallmark, M. R. Mackley, F. Gadala-Maria, Hollow Microcapillary Arrays in Thin Plastic Films,, Adv. Eng. Mat., 7(6), 545-547, (2005).
Publications relevant to MCFs are given below
- B. Hallmark, F. Gadala-Maria and M.R.Mackley, The melt processing of polymer microcapillary film (MCF), J. Non-Newtonian Fluid. Mech., 128 ,13-28, (2005)
- C. H. Hornung, B Hallmark, R. P. Hesketh and Malcolm R Mackley
The fluid flow and heat transfer performance of thermoplastic microcapillary films. J. Micromech. Microeng. 16 ,434–447 (2006)
- C. H. Hornung, M. R. Mackley, I. R. Baxendale and S. V. Ley. A Microcapillary Flow Disc Reactor for Organic Synthesis. Organic Process research and development 11(3) 399-405 (2007)
- D.I Medina, B. Hallmark, T. D. Lord, M. R. Mackley, The development of voidage and capillary size within extruded plastic films. Journal of .Material Science. 43, Nos15 5211-5221 (2008)
- B. Hallmark, C.H. Hornung, D.Broady, C. Price-Kuehne, M.R. Mackley, The application of plastic microcapillary films for fast transient micro-heat exchange. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 51, 5344–5358 . (2008)
- N.J. Darton, B. Hallmark, T. James, P. Agrawal, M.R Mackley and N.K.S. Slater Magnetic capture of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a constant pressure microcapillary flow. Journal of Magnetism 321, 10. 1571-1574 (2009)
- C.H. Hornung and M.R. Mackley The measurement and characterisation of residence time distributions for laminar liquid flow in plastic microcapillary arrays. Chemical Engineering Science 64, 3889 -3902 (2009)
- C. Parmar, D. Walker, C.H Hornung and M.R. Mackley
The experimental observation and modelling of microdroplet formation within a plastic microcapillary array. Chemical Engineering Science 64, 22, 4758-4764 (2009)
- D.I. Medina, F. Chinesta and M.R. Mackley Heat melding of voided polyethylene microstructures. Polymer, 50. 3302–3310 (2009)
- C. Dorfling , C.H.Hornung , B.Hallmark , R.J.J.Beaumont , H.Fovargue , M.R.Mackley The experimental response and modelling of a solar heat collector fabricated from plastic microcapillary films. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 94 1207–1221 (2010)
- C.H.Hornung, B.Hallmark, M.Baumann, I.R.Baxendale,S.V. Ley, P. Hester, P. Clayton and M.R. Mackley Multiple Microcapillary Reactor for Organic Synthesis.Ind. Eng. Chem. Res 49, 10. 4576-4582 (2010)
- C.H. Hornung, B. Hallmark and M.R. Mackley A Palladium Wall Coated Microcapillary Reactor for Use in Continuous Flow Transfer Hydrogenation. Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis 352,10, 1736- 1745 (2010)
- F. Scheiff,, M. Mendorf, D. Agar, N. Reis and M.R. Mackley The separation of immiscible liquid slugs within plastic microchannels using a metallic hydrophilic sidestream Lab on a Chip 11, 1022–1029 (2011)
- N.J.Darton, N.M.Reis, M.R.Mackley and N.K.H.Slater. Fast cation exchange separation in a plastic microcapillary disc
Journal of Chromatography A 1218, 10 1409-1415 (2011)
- S.Bonyadi and M.R.Mackley The development of a novel micro-capillary film membrane Journal of Membrane Science 389, 137-147 (2012)